A new content distribution strategy is needed for media content


(audience chattering) – [Voiceover] (inaudible) raw
choice, content is available everywhere, on so many platforms. En cette ère numérique, nous
sommes submergés de contenu sur diverses plateformes.. Being able to find this
content is a challenge. Not just here, but throughout the world. Le défi est de trouver le contenu dans un environnement numérique en constante évolution.. Sometimes they’re doing it
through access (inaudible). Les utilisateurs sont maintenant
plus rapides que la télé.. Users are now faster than TV. The age of abundance turned
our world upside down. Comment en sommes-nous arrivés là? How did we get here? The post-TV era has made a disruption. Et d’innovation& Millennials are commanding
change in the digital space. Force le changement dans l’espace numérique. What can analytics tell
creators in the digital era? Trouvez votre contenu.. Find your content. Ou laissez-le vous trouver? Or let it find you. Le futur est maintenant.. The future is now. And now, how do we move
from discoverability to discovered? – We’re good. Alright we’re good. Bonjour tout le monde! And welcome! Good morning, welcome to
the discoverability summit. I can’t believe there’s
people on the couches. I though, for sure the
couches would be like, “Ugh, I’m not sitting
on the couch” and so. This couch is still open guys. Bonjour à tous. Bienvenue au Sommet de la découvrabilité. Je suis très contente de voir plusieurs visages familiers dans la salle. Mon nom est Anne-Marie Withenshaw pour ceux qui ne me reconnaîtraient pas. It was great to see so many familiar faces in the room this morning. We’re in for an amazing two days, and I’m really excited to kick
it off with you guys today. And I want to welcome people watching this on the live stream. There’s the live stream. On the live stream via the
discoverability.ca website. Hi guys. Bienvenue à tous ceux qui nous écoutent en web diffusion, à partir du site découvrabilité.ca. For those of you in the room right here, I want to start off by mentioning, that simultaneous
interpretation is available throughout the event if needed. Headsets are available at
the entrance of every room. Le service d interprétation simultanée est offert tout au long de l’événement, Which means I won’t have
to translate everything like I’m doing right now. Des écouteurs sont disponibles à l’entrée de chaque salle donc vous pouvez suivre
n’importe quelle conférence peu
importe la langue. Now, some of you might have
participated in the events in my hometown of Montreal,
or in Vancouver in December, called “En route to the
discoverability summit”. Today and tomorrow is sort
of gonna be a continuation of the conversations that took
place during the pre events. But don’t worry, that
was not a pre-requisite to attend this summit. On vit en ce moment dans une ère d’abondance. Où en tant que consommateurs de télé, je suis certaine que même vous en étant à même l industrie vous vivez cette problématique-là ou cette situation-là, où on est submergé de choix, de contenu, ou d’audio-visuel, que ce soit : à la télé, Shomi, sur Crave TV, à l ONF, à TOU.TV, Netflix, YouTube, on est épuisé juste à nommer les plateformes. Donc imaginez le niveau de contenu. So, viewers are no longer wondering, “What’s on tonight?” but,
“What should I watch?” You see that all the time. “Hey, you have a new series for me? “What should I watch? What
should I look for tonight?” And so, the traditional
ways of discovering content aren’t enough anymore. So what we wanna spark
over the next two days, is, we wanna really create that spark to ignite new thinking,
new ideas, new approaches to audiovisual content discovery. And all of you guys have
brilliant ideas on how to do that. And so, we’re all very excited to hear what you have to say. So, today and tomorrow, you’ll get to hear a
number of keynote speeches. You’ll be invited to participate in seven breakout sessions. You’ll have a choice of
20 sessions in total. And you’ll get to hear
from the greatest minds and experts in a variety
of fields, to tackle this fundamental change
we’re going through, of discoverability. Alors le but c’est vraiment d’explorer des nouvelles idées, de vous présenter avec
des nouveaux outils, des
nouveaux modèles d’affaires pour identifier les vraies solutions, très concrètes, pour mettre en œuvre la découvrabilité pour les téléspectateurs, et aussi pour que, les créateurs puissent faire voir leurs œuvres. En plus, des conférences principales et des séances; les co-organisateurs de l’événement, Jean-Pierre Blais, president et premier dirigeant du CRTC, et aussi Claude Joli-Cœur (Bonjour messieurs en passant), commissaire du gouvernement à la cinématographie et président de l’ONF, vont prendre la parole dans quelques minutes pour vous souhaiter la bienvenue. After that, during lunch,
you’ll be invited to the hub in the lobby, which is
a digital playground, where you get to learn and test about lots of
products and companies. We have Move Audio that are there. Metaverse, Flixel, Google
Cardboard, which is super cool. Marvel Media, Xbox and also visit the hub zone
with Marc Saltzman, who’s a tech expert, it’s a must to go stop down and see her. On est aussi très content que l’honorable Mélanie Joly, Ministre du Patrimoine canadien, se joigne à nous cet après-midi pour vous dire quelques mots. And throughout the event
you can take advantage of our chill-out quarter
in the wildflower room across from this room,
right when you leave here, and there’s food and drinks and that’s all where registration was happening this morning. Je voulais aussi mentionner parce que c’est sûr que là vous allez être sur vos téléphones….. I don’t have a strange
growth in my pocket, it’s actually just my phone, which is off. We have some rechargeable stations. Nous avons des stations de recharge pour vos appareils un petit peu partout sur cet étage. And last, but not least don’t forget the social event tonight. You’ll get to continue your
conversations of the day, meet new experts and it will
be a really laid back setting, with entertainment, and
food, and beverages. It’s only a five, ten
minute walk from the hotel. And you should’ve also
received your event guide, with the agenda, the
sessions, the keynotes, everything is in that guide, and more copies are available
near the registration tables. Now, just a few more announcements. We’ll get all the housekeeping out of the way before we start, and then we’ll really
dig in to the content. J’aimerais remercier nos commanditaires de cet événement. Canada Media Fund and Eye on Canada, Telefilm Canada, Rogers, Shaw, CBC Radio Canada and Corus, they all contributed to
make this event possible and make it unique, we thank
them very very much for it. And now finally, I want
to invite everyone, both in the room and
watching the live stream, to use hashtag discoverability
during the summit to join the conversation on social media, and highlights of that conversation will also be displayed as you can see from the events in Montreal and Vancouver. Le mot clic qui a utiliser en français est #découvrabilité, avec les accents sur les
deux “e”. Now, if you haven’t been on Wi-fi yet, your Wi-fi password is
right behind your badge, so that’s good and easy to know. And now, let’s get this thing started. Without further ado I’d
like to invite the co-host of the discoverability
summit, Jean-Pierre Blais, chairman and CEO of the CRTC, and Claude Joli-Coeur,
Government Film Commissioner and Chairperson of the
National Film Board of Canada, to join me on stage. Good morning. (audience applaud) Merci beaucoup Anne-Marie pour nous commencer avec plein d’énergie. Je ne suis pas certain, on était au sommet de la jeunesse plus tôt la semaine dernière et puis on a échangé sur le fait que…. – While teenagers have
a little less energy at 9:30 in the morning, so
I’m hoping that this crowd will be more awake. So good morning everyone and welcome to the discoverability summit. Avant de commencer je tiens à reconnaître que nous sommes réunis aujourd’hui sur le territoire traditionnel des Premières Nations. Je tiens donc à les remercier et à rendre hommage à leurs aînés. J’aimerais aussi saluer la présence des gens qui nous suivent par webdiffusion et je vous encourage d’ailleurs à utiliser le mot clic #découvrabilité sur les réseaux sociaux afin de prendre part aux discussions via internet. I want to acknowledge
those who are watching us via live stream and I
encourage you to use the discoverability hashtag to join on the online discussion on social media. It certainly is an honor to
welcome all of you here today. You know, it’s been a long time and a short time coming. I think the people organizing it, thought that they didn’t have much time. But you know, I announced
that we would do this in March 2015, a little over a year ago. And it’s been quite the
long gestation period, so I hope it’ll be a very
exciting couple of days, where we get to explore issues that are on the cutting edge of cultural creation and content. It’s been certainly a
pleasure to work with the National Film Board
in timing this event. We have an exciting program for you that will hopefully inspire you and spark ideas to improve
the discoverability of audiovisual content. Pourquoi la découvrabilité est-elle aussi importante? La réponse est à la fois simple et complexe. Nous vivons dans une ère d’abondance. Le contenu est partout. On peut accéder à ce contenu n’importe où, sur toutes sortes de plateformes. Le téléspectateur est plus puissant que jamais. Aujourd’hui, il est un agrégateur actif et autonome, à la recherche de contenu divertissant de partout dans le monde. Dans les deux jours qui suivent, nous aurons la chance de discuter et de s’écouter. Nous continuerons les conversations que nous avons entamées lors des événements préliminaires « En route vers le Sommet de la découvrabilité ». À Montréal, nous avons pu tâter le pouls du marché de langue française, While in Vancouver we focused on the English language market. Nous voulons maintenant rassembler ces deux marchés, And see what lessons can
be learned from each other. So, you will also have an opportunity here about strategies. Some of them (inaudible)
use to find success in the international market, but also learn from what did not work. As well, we are pleased to present a panel of international
regulators and experts. I’d like to extend a warm
welcome to our guest from Mexico’s Federal
Telecommunications Institute. And to those from the US Federal
Communication Commission. As well as the multicultural media, telecom and internet council. A moment ago I said that audiences are no longer passive
receivers of content. Millennials in particular,
are the leading edge, as active trendsetters,
curators, and content creators. To find out more about
their habits and behavior we held last week, as I mentioned earlier, a youth edition of this summit. While this summit was playfully described as the adult summit. Interesting discussions took place, once those folks woke
up, around 10 o’clock. With 100 very, very
insightful and energetic folks from 15 to 17 years old, that came in for the event. And they do have absolutely
wonderful insight. And we have a lot to learn from them. In fact I described as
consultants for the day. They really stepped up. And you’ll have a chance to hear what they said, later this afternoon. But I’ll give you a
preview of what they said. The overwhelming majority
do not want content through a traditional
television service provider. Their primary source of
content is the internet. Given when they– from
first things they turn on is to find out what’s on YouTube, and what’s going on there
to their smartphones. With broadband and a slew
of apps at their disposal, consumers and citizens have the power of “now” in their hands. The power to choose,
when the wind strikes, to watch or listen to this
or to that as they please. This is why discoverability is relevant. Why it’s worth getting all of you together here today and tomorrow,
and why it’s essential. Au cours des deux prochains jours, je vous invite bien sûr à discuter d’idées et d’approches novatrices pour faire face au défi que pose la découvrabilité. Mais plus encore : quelle incidence la découvrabilité a-t-elle sur vous, que vous soyez membre de l’industrie, avide téléspectateur, ou les deux ? Comment mener le contenu au téléspectateur, et à l’inverse, comment apporter le téléspectateur au contenu? Traditional promotion
and marketing techniques are not entirely as
effective as they once were. Don’t abandon them, but
how do we build on them? What then can be done to bring content and
viewers back together again? So, in search for answers
we have gathered experts from a wide variety of trade, ranging from television
and, hashtag obvious, to data architecture,
as well as professionals from social media and video game worlds. To cite only a few. And it’s great to see many familiar faces in this room, but it’s also great to see very not familiar faces in this room, because I think there is some issues that we need to explore from
a variety of providers. Believe me when I tell you, we have quite a rich array of expertise here, today and tomorrow. And I want to remind everyone that this is anything but
a regulatory proceeding. You may have noticed that it doesn’t look like our
hearing room in Cappana. And this is the CRTC
using its convening power in collaboration with the
NFB, Canada’s public sector audiovisual research
and development branch to discuss the future surrounding discoverability as potential solutions. We have the honor of
having someone special, as Emily mentioned earlier, as the summit a person of Mélanie Joly,
Minister of Canadian Heritage. She will be with us later today to join the discoverability discussion. I can’t believe I don’t trip over the word discoverability
and decouvrabilite as I did a year ago, but anyhow. Le problème quand on crée des néologismes, c’est de les apprendre et de les laisser sortir rapidement. I also want to acknowledge the presence of my CRTC commissioner colleagues and some of our senior staff here. And finally, I want to officially welcome all of you to the summit. Discuss, watch, listen, share, take selfies and don’t forget to use the discoverability hashtag. Le mot clic #découvrabilité et je souhaite à tous et à toutes un bon Sommet. Thank you very much. (audience applaud) – Mr Jean-Pierre, Good morning, welcome to this important conference and thank you for joining us today. For what I think, it
is a unique opportunity for all of us to begin to shape the impact of our creative work in new ways. Il est rare que autant de talents issue de divers horizons et représentant un large inventaire de disciplines d’industrie se ressemblent dans un but bien précis. Too rarely do film makers,
television executives, data scientists, musicians, academics, writers, archivists, game developers, public
servants and entrepreneurs meet on common ground
with a shared ambition. Seeking approaches to
entering in an algorithmic world audiences both here
in Canada and globally can easily discover our content. Discoverability though,
has to lead to action. Being on the menu of million choices doesn’t mean our efforts will succeed. Audiences can be so
paralyzed by so many choices that they revert to the familiar. And I think we can all
agree with convention that Canadian creative
productions are remarkable. And that our film makers
and television creators are superbly talented, but that their work is not exactly familiar,
or familiar enough. Discoverability has long been
a problem in this country we just didn’t have a name for it. We live in a time when every company, every
organization, every government is in the content business. And a time when much of
the content people consume is created by people they know personally. With that kind of
competition, what can we do to make our content more
findable and appealing? Nous vivons une époque où toutes les entreprises, toutes les organisations, même tous les gouvernements, accorde une importance primordiale au contenu. Une époque où une grande partie du contenu consommé par les internautes est créé par des gens qu’il connaisse personnellement. Devant ce genre de concurrence, que pouvons-nous faire pour rendre notre contenu plus attirant et plus facile à trouver. At the NFB we create and
distribute documentaries, animation and interactive production and it is the newest of
these, the interactive work that has made us more discoverable, here and beyond Canada’s border. We did it by making things
that no one had made before, on a scale and with a creative confidence that drew significant
international attention. This success brought
key major organizations, from the New York times to MIT to IT, knocking on our door. They saw our work as
valuable for their audiences and sought to collaborate with us. Another big part of this shift is how people perceived and
connected with the NFB. Also came from our huge
collection of films, which we put online starting in 2009. Thousands of titles, some decades old that were newly discoverable for free. (inaudible) films reached new audiences, who had never heard of us before. But as an industry we should not just give audiences what they want driven by consumer preference data. We also need to leap, to take audiences where they had not been before. That will help distinguish
Canadian content and help nurture what
minister Joly describes as an environment of innovation. En tant qu’industrie nous ne devons pas nous limiter à nous laisser guider par les données sur les préférences des consommateurs pour leur offrir ce qu’ils veulent. Nous devons aussi prendre initiative, amener les auditoires là où ils n’ont encore jamais été. C’est ce qui contribuera à faire sortir le contenu Canadien, à favoriser le développement de l’écosystème d’innovation comme l’appelle la Ministre Joly. In her recently announced consultations on Canadian content in a digital world, the minister is seeking input on how to strengthen the
creation, discovery and export of Canadian content in a digital world. Ours is a sector, where culture, technology, personal expression, citizenship and economic growth are all vital elements of quality. In this context we can
see that discoverability has very significant
implications for Canadians. So what’s next? Well, perhaps the safest thing to do, is not to play it safe. The new normal, is that
there is no normal. Do we act on these challenges? As Canadians, we may need
to globalize fuller content. Or will we be acted upon? Nos auditoires ne sont pas dans la salle aujourd’hui mais ils doivent demeurer au centre de nos discussions. Rappelons-nous qu’il faut davantage que de la technologie et du contenu exceptionnel et pertinent pour les inspirer. Our audiences are not here
in the room today with us. But they must remain at the
center of our discussions. What drives them, is not just technology, and amazing and relevant content. So we have two days to think about it. To take initiative to shape the future, so let’s go to work. Thank you. (audience applaud) Merci, Monsieur Joli-Coeur, Monsieur Blais. – And now kicking off the day with our first keynote address. Dana Lee, associate professor and manager of the
media production program at Ryerson University, is joining us for a 25 minute keynote, featuring the pivotal
moments in recent history that lead us to this age of abundance. Mr Lee started his
broadcast career in 1979 at city TV, when it was still
transmitting on channel 79. In ’84 he joined MuchMusic as its supervisor of operations, eventually specializing in
live music event television. In ’94 he began teaching at Ryerson University’s
RTA school of media. And his current research focus at Ryerson is online collaborative
learning and teaching and using new technologies to develop e-learning materials and blended learning courses. Join me in welcoming Mr Dana Lee. (audience applaud) – Hello. It’s not working? Ah there it goes, okay, very good, okay. Thank you and good morning. Je ne parle pas beaucoup français, So I’m gonna be in the bush. (inaudible) like wow, it’s
all coming back to me now. Okay, thank you very
much and good morning. I’m here today to help you think about the bigger question of distribution and, of course ultimately for
you folks, discoverability. I’m probably gonna leave you with more questions than answers. Make you scratch your head a little bit. But, here’s a bit of background, especially for those of you who don’t think about the history of this content all that much. Today I’m going to concentrate– Let’s see if this works. Yeah. No. Oops. But I’m moving ahead. Try the other clicker. I got nothing here. And this, ladies and gentlemen is all about how technology
sometimes fails you. (audience laughs) I’m gonna talk about
wireless later on too, and how we gotten into wireless. And how wireless sometimes doesn’t work. Should I sing a little song? I don’t know. Oh there we go. Is that me? Nope, that’s not me. That’s you. Okay, yep. No, I’m still not clicking. Maybe you can forward the slides for me. Yeah. Jared says yes, okay. Okay, so today I’m not gonna
concentrate on the content. You have two days to
concentrate on the content. I’m gonna talk a little bit
more about distribution methods. Because you’re gonna talk about
content for days and days. I’m not gonna start that with you. To have meaningful
conversations about content, we have to talk a little bit about how we get content. Store it, retrieve it, move
it from one place to another. Next slide please. Next slide? And now, hello? (audience laughs) And that is why my talk
is about technologies. (audience laughs) Old school. I can proceed ahead. That’s too bad. I had some cool, funny
pictures to show you. Try one more, we go one more? Yes! Yes, give it up for the slide. Okay, information and stories have been important to us all since almost practically forever. I guess it all started when we were still grunting at each other, sketching cave drawings. So if there’s a question, which came first, audio or pictures? I would actually maybe say the pictures came first perhaps, in terms of communicating
with one another. Eventually we began
forming words and sentences however haltingly to get our
point across to each other. Communication in this
way was used to provide, of course an oral history. It started with oral history that you pass down from
one generation to the next. Next slide. Oh it’s working, great. One day, someone used their voice to sing some grunts at each other. And using (inaudible). So from the very beginning we
had to have this insatiable– or we had rather, this insatiable desire to talk to each other,
communicate with each other. And we never formed every medium we felt was appropriate at
the moment, up to this point. Okay, now these poor suckers, they spent their entire
lives transcribing documents before they fade away into oblivion. Today we have a more
elegant name for that. We call it making a
backup for the archives. So that’s what they called it. This clearly was a pain in the butt. So we ended up, Gutenberg invented the printing press in the 15th century, relieving the tedium of painstakingly transcribing things over and over, and over again. We still do that sometimes. This of course was
followed by lithography, eventually the newfangled
line effect machine. Can you imagine standing, or sitting in front of that machine all day, in front of hit lead boiling away and painting things up. That was all fine and
well for the printed word. We’re gonna move into modern media, but the only way to get that printed text to a far away place was by placing it in some form of physical transportation and then carrying it someplace else. Not the most efficient
means of communication. And now, we enter into the modern age. The telegraph changed all that. And this is the first example of the digital encoding of information. We think this digital encoding thing is still relatively new. This is digital encoding. You took the letters of the message, of what you want to send, encoded them in a special
series of dots and dashes, and you could send that information. If you had the magical code system, you could decode those
symbols back into text. We talk about codex today. You know, all these
different kind of codex, and coders and decoders. And this certainly fits that definition. The telegraph can be used
right in the distance. Imagine we’re flipping
able to send information from one place to another
almost instantaneously by wires. This is a very new idea, this beats the pony
express, by a fair bit. Okay, new services love this, because the latest story, such as they were in the day, became available all across the country more or less immediately. The early use of codex
is all fine and well, but you need specialized people to do the interpretation and
move the messages around. It was not for our end consumer. Unlike the media that we have today. But that was okay, because the newspapers at the time converted all
these special codes into text, so that the consumers, the masses could read them and understand them. Now, it was time to move
away from a digital medium. Never thought of the
telegraph as a digital medium. Back in (mumbles) and of course, Alexander Graham Bell who was fooling with and eventually invented the telephone. This was the first modern medium that would eventually provide consumers a two way communication among themselves. That’s a big change, in terms
of modern media at least. Understand that print
was a one way medium, what we would call a one-to-many medium. With the possible exception of writing a letter to the editor that you may or may not get published in the next couple of
weeks in the newspaper. So, this is a two way thing. The telephone really, in a sense, is the first social media. The fact that we could
communicate with each other and gossip and share
stories with each other. So, so far I’ve concentrated
very largely on sounds. We’re not gonna leave out pictures. That came of course, with the invention of
motion pictures, film. And film, of course, started
with still photography. Pardon me. And the ability to capture still images of a moment in time for all to see. Can you imagine what this was like? This must’ve been magical, for those who weren’t fully
cognitive of how film worked. Wait, wait, wait, that’s the
Eiffel Tower in the picture? And then a little bit later on. Wait, that’s me in front
of the Eiffel Tower? Selfies. Motion pictures were simply an adaptation of the fact that we all have inside us what’s called a persistence of vision. Would you click on that
little video for me? It’s gonna flicker a little bit. Here we go. Persistence of vision
is happening for you. If you flash an image on the screen and then take it away, the image will remain in our brains for up to a tenth of a second. Kinda doing it there, you’re kinda seeing a
bit of an image going on. Now, early motion picture technology, for example the zoetrope, and various versions of it, were exploitations of that fact. Zoetropes get pretty boring after a few seconds of watching that. It’s not a very interesting plot. So eventually, other people, like Thomas Edison and
Lumiere brothers in France and so many other people, invented a system whereby you could see longer forms of picture
content in the theater. Now that’s happening by the late 1800s. Could you click on that
video for me please? There’s no sound with these. I just wanna show you this very quick clip from “The Great Train Robbery” from Thomas Edison Studios in 1903. And you will notice that it has all the modern conventions of
modern motion pictures. Fast-moving action, more than a little bit of gratuitous violence,
and most importantly, believable special effects. (audience laughs) There’s no way– I mean, my God, look at these
(inaudible) on that thing. Thank you. So you see, films really
haven’t changed all that much. Okay, back to radio for a moment. When the silent films
of Lumiere and Edison were being shown in theaters, this was a new venture on
the horizon, called radio. Radio was one of the first cumulative, maybe not necessarily
collaborative inventions of the early 20th century from Mawell– and I’ve got a bunch of
cool pictures up here. From Maxwell, the Hertz, and Tesla to Fessenden and Marconi and Armstrong, and Fleming and de Forest. While these folks didn’t always agree with one another and certainly they did not agree. They didn’t even agree who owned what patents from time to time. Eventually radio did all come together. And of course, we know, today it works. So now we’ve got films in the theaters and radio is something that people are now receiving in their homes. Wouldn’t it be great if
we could get pictures into the homes as well? It’d be great. We know what that is. It’s called television. Literally, tele-vision. Long distance imagery. So this is a great idea. This idea was developed by lots of people all over the world. Those of you who heard
television historians probably know a lot about it. Here’s a couple of players. John Logie Baird in the United Kingdom. And of course, Vladimir Zworykin. And Philo T. Farnsworth. All happy, smiling people. In America, David Sarnoff. One of the great business people in America to do with television, realised the commercial importance. And as president of RCA,
demonstrated the practicality of television at the E in New
York World’s Fair in 1939. RCA owned NBC, arguably the
first television network in the United States all
be a small one at the time. This all came to an abrupt halt at the beginning of the Second World War. I suppose the good news is that all the research and development that had gone into
television at this point was used to help the war effort. And they’d do development such as radio communication and radar. Just gonna grab a glass of water here. Okay. So I’ve taken you up to
the Second World War. After the war everything went a bit nuts. The sale of televisions in the United States and Canada increased at a rapid rate, as you can see by this chart. You’ve seen charts like this all the time. By 1965 over 90% of households had at least one television set. That’s a pretty big take up. Okay. This chart happens to be
from the United States. The stats are easier to get. Our chart, in Canada was
pretty much exactly the same. Except, because we have
one tenth of the population it’s one tenth the number
of television sets. Up until 1952, speaking of all of that, the sale of television
sets in the United States and Canada increased at a rapid rate. Oops, sorry, up until 1952 I should say, there were no television
stations in our country. Even though some TV sets
were clearly being sold. So all those sets were purchased predominantly by folks living near the Canada-US border and their antennas, there’s the antennas, were aimed at American transmitters. CBC, as most of you
know signed on in 1952, followed closely up behind by CTV, independent stations and the
eventual expansion of networks, both in the United States and in Canada. Okay. That was real fast. Now history buffs in the crowd will realize I’ve lost over a whole bunch of stuff. And I get that. This is not supposed to be a detailed history lesson. It’s supposed to be an up-talk to get you going for two
days in discoverability. What’s interesting though,
is the nature of that chart. It’s similar to the adoption curve of almost all of our media technologies. You’ve got the early adopters, followed by a large
surge up in the middle, and a flattening out,
as mostly everybody else picks up on the concept and basically adopt that new technology. So we, in Canada, were fairly quickly adding television transmitters from sea to shining sea. To give you an idea of
the effort involved, of the coverage of Canada. By 1979 we had 980 new
transmitters in operation. This is television. While the US, with their
10 times the population had only a little bit more, 1045. Today, in this country, we have over– I think really it’s now
over 5000 transmitters of one sort or another. That’s a lot of transmitters. We are in a big country. Despite this herculean
effort, a lot of people have been and are still
left out of the loop. Folks in Northern Canada, for example had little of any television. Radio, a little cheaper to
set up, transmit and receive. Also it was more limited,
less choice available. It’s a big place. Folks, this is a tough slog that we had in this country. And we needed better ways
of getting the word out. Cable TV helped pave that way. Starting around 1952,
the invention of cable was to get over-the-air
signals to more viewers. A lot of us lived in areas of the country where the reception wasn’t too great. Either because we lived
in a valley, perhaps or simply just being a long distance away from the nearest stations. Our early cable pioneers set up antennas up on high hills, as you can see in this old picture, picked up the distant stations and for a very small monthly fee to cover the cost of
the distribution system delivered those signals to your home. It started off really small. By 1964 only 4% of Canadian
households had cable TV. We almost can’t imagine that day. Those of you of a certain age, like me, will remember this changing
by the middle 1970s. Cable started to take off in urban areas, not just rural open spaces. Often because of the proliferation, say that word five times, of high rise buildings. Which meant, your
rooftop antenna reception kinda sucked, and the rabbit ears if you were still using
them on your TV set, were even worse. Okay, I remember as a
young student at Ryerson, my friends telling me,
“Come to my parent’s place “we have cable TV” God, this laughter, so you remember that. “We have cable” By 1975 cable TV was in
60% of Canadian households. That’s a big increase from 4%. Meanwhile we’re messing around
with these satellite things. If you hurl a satellite into space at a distance of 36000
kilometers, plus or minus, at a velocity of 11000 kilometers per hour in position of the equator, something really neat happens. As the earth rotates, the satellite appears to us to be not moving. It’s just hanging up there in space. There are hundreds of these things. It’s called the geosynchronous satellite, and there are, boom, hundreds of those up there now, circling the globe. We send a signal to the satellite, it turns it around and beams it back down. We can cover an entire
country with one beam if necessary, it’s a wonderful thing. Some of you are familiar with this, some of you were not, so I’m bringing you up to speed. That beam comes down, obviously we transmit signals from TV station to TV
station for our networks, also to all the cable companies to get all of that wonderful
content into our homes. And of course, now we
have direct broadcast satellites so that we have direct-to-home satellite TV. Running parallel with all this of course just to complete is has been a deployment of television distribution systems employing high speed infrastructure from the telephone companies. And of course, just to be fair, cable now offers
telephone service as well. Everything is starting to converge, for the first time. This has been happening for a while, but this was the first time. And things are happening more– The things are more complicated
for the end consumer. They had this thing called choice. Finally, the internet, became a public enterprise
in the early 1990s. Had to find that picture. You see it says deviantart.net,
as far as I can tell, I try and give credit, where credit is due on the pictures. I went to try and find out where the source for this was, and I ended up in one of those, you know– like the browser blocks the sites, because it was spammy and weird. And I thought, how typical, I’m trying to find a cute
picture of the internet, and it’s just, “Don’t go
there, that’s a virus.” Anyway, (mumbles). The internet is really
only about 20 years ago. I know, some of us may remember a time before the internet. Probably none of us remember
a time before radio, or time before the telephone, or even a time before early television. So that’s how new this internet thing is. Keep that in mind in your conversations over the next couple of days. This is still really, really new. Now we’re gonna continue to struggle with it for a while yet. The way history goes is often an exercise in hand reading. It goes something like this. First off, we had newspapers, then radio was invented and developed, it became widespread,
and newspaper publishers proclaimed that it will
be the end of print media. Radio is immediate,
newspapers not so much, it’s gonna destroy us. The music industry, meanwhile, with this invention of radio, was apoplectic about the invention of it, as they don’t see how it can possibly be used to increase sales
of photograph recordings. I mean they’re giving
away the music for free. How do we possibly use
radio to increase our sales? This will be the end of
music industry, they said. Motion pictures are safe, for a moment. Because nobody’s figured out how to put moving pictures into the home. Now that changes. They develop television,
and the movie people are now all in a huff. They’re saying it’s going to
destroy the theater business. To their credit, they’ve
continued to develop technology over the years, to combat this. Things like, color movies, special effects that can’t be done on TV, higher resolution film, better projectors, better quality sound, all that good stuff. The TV folks, of course
invent all that as well. And right around we go. Meanwhile off to the
side, cable TV takes off, and our audiences, really
for the first time, back then, start to become fragmented. Choice. More choice. Choice for the consumer will
be the end of all of us. Our audiences are shrinking, more due. Wait a second. We’re the ones who made all the choice. Hmm, okay. The VCR is invented. Remember VCRs? And now the movie and television production companies are upset. They’re stealing our stuff. You’re allowing people to make free copies of our content to watch, when they want to watch it, where they want to watch it, instead of us telling them what to watch and when to watch. We now flip that on it’s head. Of course we know consumers want that now. This was a new idea back then. This will destroy the movie and TV industries they said. How can we possibly make money? This is piracy, and then they took a step back and said, “Hang on a second.” You remember the days of
being able to rent movies, on DVD and on VHS tapes. They made billions of these things, so people had to rethink the content, and rethink the technology, to you know, get it out to people. Alright, how do we get that content, help people find out? Meanwhile somebody said,
“I got another idea, “let’s start making even more content. “We’ll make more
television cable channels. “Heck, we could even get the consumer “to pay for these channels. “What do we call them?” “I know, pay TV.” So that’s what we did. And that’s how we’ll get
out lost revenues back, and that’s how we’ll get our viewers back. So with the best of intentions, we start to scramble, all of us do this. Mind you, this scrabbling
takes a few decades. It doesn’t happen overnight, okay. We’ve been doing this for a long time. But there’s a little bit
of a tension in the air, that’s been building up over the decades. Can you feel it? Oh yes, the internet, remember that? What a neat toy the
internet is, we said, right? This whole internet thing will never be in competition for our listeners and viewers, it’s just for print. Insert pity here for the
print people of course. And because, sure people are putting up some low quality audio, and some little, tiny,
low resolution videos, but this whole internet thing
will really never take off, because the bandwidth
will never be big enough for audio and video, right? How’s that working out? There’s a big lesson
in all of this history as I get near the end of all of this. Let me quote something to you. Okay, there’s a lot of
you in the room here and you’ve come from all over the place. Especially I’ve heard that in the opening comments this morning. Maybe you came here by traveling
on a commercial airline. You well know the check-in procedures you have to go through. Online bookings, printing
up your boarding pass, whether you print it at home, or in your office, or at the airport. Scanning your passport, scanning your boarding pass several times. Some of you traveled internationally, you did that a lot of times to get here. Walk through a security checkpoint, eventually walk through a secure area until the aircraft boards and so on. Could the Wright Brothers possibly have anticipated all that when they figured out how to fly a machine in the air? And what they saw from the
air on those first flights, they looked down, “Wow
man, I can see the ground.” Did they ever imagine a day, when everybody would be able to do that (clicks fingers) so quickly? We call it Google Earth. The early inventors of photography, they were fooling around with black boxes, photosensitive materials,
stinky chemicals. Did they ever imagine the
emergence of the digital camera? Or the selfie, or worst
of all, the selfie stick? When Alexander Graham Bell
spilled acid on himself and called out to Watson,
was he able to imagine that every one of us in this room probably was gonna have one of
those in our pockets? Did he consider voicemail as an option? Can you imagine him calling out to Watson, and getting something like this? Click, aah, seriously? There it is. Hey, I’m not in the next room right now please leave your
message and I’ll call you back as soon as I can,
thanks and have a great day. (audience laughs) I don’t know. Did the inventors of radio
ever consider that one day everyone would own several
radio transmitters. Everything from cell
phones, Wi-fi, bluetooth, two-way radios, cordless phones. That said, you could have a landline to plug your cordless phone into. This clicker thing, which works with you know, this wireless
microphone I have on. We lot own many transmitters (inaudible) over one, right? It’s changing. I wonder what Fessenden would have thought of
internet radio and podcasts? My point in all of this is that these original inventions– There we go. My point in all of this is that these original inventions were never intended to serve the purposes that they do today. None of the inventions as invented do the same thing today. Yes, both in a sense. None of the content that we invented is gonna be doing what it did in the past. We have to think about what content is going to do for our viewers,
for our content viewers. Okay, these things all mutate over time and will continue to do so. I keep hitting the wrong button, that’s partly my problem, my bad. It’s not about the
medium, it’s the message, and by the message I don’t
actually mean the content. I was in NAB a couple of weeks ago, perhaps some of you were there too. As I walked around past
almost 1800 exhibitor booths I noticed something, there are lots of systems
and devices out there for creating, distributing, storing and monetizing your content, but there is proportionately very little about how to hold up your audience, or how to hold your audience, or even how to get your
audience in the first place. The tools that are out there seem to be right now are often designed to fight a particular group of designated listeners or viewers, and then see if anybody bites, if anybody takes up your content. That’s an old push-it-out-to-them model. We all know about push and pull content. Perhaps (inaudible) what we need is a different model
that allows the end user, the consumer to actually find
stuff they’re interested in, rather than just stumble
across by happenstance or because they saw someone’s posting on Facebook about it, that
content that might interest them. Yes, we realize this, but
it’s not organized us. But that’s the way it seems
to be working right now. At least the way it works for me as a consumer of content. The notes for this symposium, the big broad notes in the
handouts that you all have, talk about creating a one-to-one connection with the viewer, and deepening that relationship. I wholeheartedly agree. I said a couple of minutes ago, that it’s about the message, but I said that that
message wasn’t content. I would suggest that over
the next couple of days you think about customer service. Maybe that, maybe that’s
part of the message. In the end this is about
people, not technology. In fact, it’s not even
necessarily about the content. It is, as we’re doing
for the next few days, about the discoverability of that content. I’ve concentrated on
technology a lot in this talk and I think you can see this technology is terribly beautiful, it’s beautiful and mutable. So this content, content
is absolutely beautiful. It can be re-purposed for distribution in so many different ways. And pretty much everybody in the room probably does that one way or another. Making more of it is not getting
it discovered any better. There’s just more to choose from. To me, every single one of your audience members is a human being, just like you and I. Bad grammar up there,
just like you and me. Okay, maybe that is where we should be concentrating our efforts from now on. I don’t know, but what
I’ve tried to give you is a little bit behind– a little bit of historical background to think about how, everything that we create in the moment we think we’ve got this. I got this, I got motion
pictures figured out. I got TV figured out. I got radio figured out. Then we do, at the moment, but maybe we have to think about, can we predict in the future, how we figure out, how we get our folks to
discover our content better. And that, ladies and
gentlemen is your mission over the next couple of days. Thank you very much for your time. (audience applaud)

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